Area Handbook Series
From the Library of Congress: Online book-length studies of 100 countries "describing and analyzing their political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions; people, their origins, dominant beliefs and values, their interests, their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward their social system and political order."
Political Science Resources: Foreign Politics (U. Michigan)
Includes comprehensive political sources, individual country politics, elections and military information.
Background Notes - U.S. State Department
Contains sections on: government, economy, history, people, political conditions and foreign relations.
NationMaster.com - A central data source and way to graphically compare nations, generate maps and graphs with statistics.